afternoon, Mr. Chairman and Members of the Committee.
It is my pleasure to come before you today to discuss
the FBI’s Counterterrorism Analysis and Collection,
with a particular focus on our analytic capabilities.
As Director Mueller has said, the FBI has worked closely
with the Commission and their staff throughout their
tenure and we commend them for an extraordinary effort.
Throughout this process, we have approached the Commission’s
inquiry as an opportunity to seek informed and impartial
input from outside experts. We took their critiques seriously,
adapted our ongoing reform efforts, and have already
taken substantial steps to address their remaining concerns.
We are gratified and encouraged that the Commission has
embraced our vision for change, and recognize the progress
that the men and women of the FBI have made to implement
you are aware, the terrorist threat of today represents
complex challenges. Today’s terrorists operate
seamlessly across borders and continents, aided by sophisticated
communications technologies; they finance their operations
with elaborate funding schemes; and they patiently and
methodically plan and prepare their attacks. To meet
and defeat this threat, the FBI must have several critical
we must be intelligence-driven. To defeat the terrorists,
we must develop intelligence about their plans and
use that intelligence to disrupt those plans.
must be global. We must continue our efforts to develop
our overseas law enforcement efforts, our partnerships
with foreign law enforcement, and our knowledge and
expertise about foreign cultures and our terrorist
must have networked information technology systems.
We need the capacity to manage and share our information
we must remain accountable under the Constitution
and the rule of law. We must respect civil rights
and civil liberties as we protect the American people.
achieve success in this war on terror, we have transformed
the FBI's Counterterrorism (CT) program and integrated
our investigative and intelligence operations; we have
improved information sharing with other federal agencies
and state and local law enforcement entities; and enhanced
our operational capabilities within FBIHQ and all local
FBI today has a clear hierarchy of national priorities
with the prevention of terrorist attacks at the top.
We recognize that a prerequisite for any operational
coordination is the full and free exchange of information.
Without procedures and mechanisms that allow for information
sharing on a regular and timely basis, we and our partners
cannot expect to align our operational efforts to best
accomplish our shared mission. Accordingly, we have taken
steps to establish unified FBI-wide policies for sharing
information and intelligence. This has occurred under
the umbrella of the FBI’s Intelligence Program.
mission of the FBI’s Intelligence Program is to
optimally position the FBI to meet current and emerging
national security and criminal threats by (1) aiming
core investigative work proactively against threats to
US interests, (2) building and sustaining enterprise-wide
intelligence policies and human and technical capabilities,
and (3) providing useful, appropriate, and timely information
and analysis to the national security, homeland security,
and law enforcement communities. Building on already
strong FBI intelligence capabilities, Director Mueller
created in January 2003 the position of Executive Assistant
Director (EAD) of Intelligence and an Office of Intelligence.
I was honored to join the FBI in May 2003 as the first
built the FBI Intelligence Program on the following core
Requirements and Collection Management: While
intelligence collection, operations, analysis,
and reporting are integrated at headquarters divisions
and in the field, the Office of Intelligence manages
the requirements and collection management process.
This ensures that we focus intelligence collection
and production on priority intelligence requirements
and on filling key gaps in our knowledge.
Management and Distributed Execution: The
power of the FBI intelligence capability is in
its 56 field offices, 400 resident agencies and
56 legal attaché offices around the world.
The Office of Intelligence must provide those
entities with sufficient guidance to drive intelligence
production effectively and efficiently, but no
micro-manage field intelligence operations.
Strategic Analysis: The
Office of Intelligence sets strategic analysis
priorities and ensures they are carried out both
at headquarters and in the field. This is accomplished
through a daily production meeting that I chair.
of Analysis with Operations: Intelligence
analysis is best when collectors and analysts work
side-by-side in integrated operations.
of Operations (CONOPs) guide FBI intelligence processes
and detailed implementation plans drive specific actions
to implement them. Our CONOPs cover the following core
functions: Intelligence Requirements and Collection
Management; Intelligence Assessment Process; Human Talent
for Intelligence Production; Field Office Intelligence
Operation; Intelligence Production and Use; Information
Sharing; Community Support; Threat Forecasting and Operational
Requirements; and Budget Formulation for Intelligence.
Developing the Intelligence Cadre
heart and soul of any intelligence program is its people.
At the FBI I have been given personal responsibility
for developing and ensuring the health of the FBI intelligence
cadre. It is important to note that our intelligence
cadre is not limited to intelligence analysts, but also
includes agents, language analysts, surveillance specialists,
and others. It takes all of these specialists to perform
quality intelligence production at the FBI. My charge
from Director Mueller is to create a cradle-to-grave
career path for intelligence professionals at the FBI
that parallels the one that has existed and functioned
so well for our agents, and has been codified in our
Concept of Operations (CONOP) for Human Talent for Intelligence
following the concepts of operations, the FBI has also
standardized the Intelligence Analyst position descriptions,
created one skill community for Intelligence Analysts
(whether in the Field or FBI Headquarters), and standardized
the Intelligence Analyst promotion procedures and criteria.
There are three distinct work roles for Intelligence
Analysts at the FBI. All FBI Intelligence Analysts will
be certified in each work role to ensure maximum flexibility
in deploying our analytic workforce. All analysts will
have the opportunity to specialize in one of these work
roles or in a particular subject matter, as well. Our
work roles are as follows:
Specialists, who provide critical frontline
intelligence/investigative support to investigations
in the field and at headquarters, with a
particular emphasis on carrying out collection
tasking and gap analysis.
who identify and extract essential information
and analysis from FBI investigations and
intelligence products, and synthesize the
information into disseminable reports. This
information is shared with appropriate FBI
entities, law enforcement agencies, and the
Intelligence Community in a timely manner.
Analysts, who have specific expertise,
discern patterns of complex behavior, and
provide accurate understanding of present
and future threats.
Office of Intelligence sets unified standards, policies,
and training for analysts. We have implemented a strategic
plan to recruit, hire, and retain intelligence analysts.
The Bureau has selected veteran analysts to attend events
at colleges and universities, as well as designated career
fairs throughout the country. We executed an aggressive
marketing plan, and for the first time in FBI history,
we are offering hiring bonuses for FBI analysts.
October 2003 to April 2004, the FBI participated in more
than 10 recruitment events and plans to add at least
five additional events through September 2004. A marketing
plan also was implemented to attract potential candidates.
In February 2004, an advertisement specific to the Intelligence
Analyst position at the FBI was placed in The Washington
Post, The Washington Times, and the New
York Times, and has since been run several more
times. Our National Press Office issued a press release
that kicked off an aggressive hiring campaign.
College of Analytic Studies (CAS), established in October
2001, is based at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia.
Since FY 2002, 264 analysts have graduated from the College’s
six-week Basic Intelligence Analyst Course. 655 field
and headquarters analysts have attended specialty courses
on a variety of analytical topics. 1,389 field and headquarters
employees have attended specialized counterterrorism
courses offered in conjunction with CIA University, and
1,010 New Agent Trainees have received an instructional
block on intelligence.
Basic Intelligence Course currently offered by the CAS
is being revised and updated to incorporate key elements
of our intelligence program. Upon completion of this
effort, the course will be retitled: Analytical Cadre
Education Strategy I (ACES I) as outlined in the Human
Talent CONOPS. An intermediate course entitled ACES II
is anticipated in the future that would target more experienced
analysts. Practical exercises and advanced writing skills
will be emphasized, as well as advanced analytical techniques.
ACES I course will incorporate seven core elements of
intelligence relevant for new agents and new analysts.
Additionally ACES I will focus on assimilation, analytic
tradecraft and practice, thinking and writing skills,
resources, and field skills.
Complementing ACES I and ACES II, the Office of Intelligence, in coordination
with the FBI Training and Development Division, will identify, facilitate,
and exploit training partnerships with other government agencies, academia,
and the private sector to fully develop the career choices of FBI analysts.
Whether an analyst chooses the specialized, interdisciplinary, or managerial
career path, s/he will have the opportunity to attend courses offered through
the Joint Military Intelligence Training Center, other government training
centers, and private companies.
Office of Intelligence is also establishing education
cooperative programs where college students will be able
to work at the FBI while earning a four-year degree.
Students may alternate semesters of work with full-time
study or may work in the summers in exchange for tuition
assistance. In addition to financial assistance, students
would benefit by obtaining significant work experience,
and the FBI would benefit through an agreement requiring
the student to continue working for the FBI for a specific
period of time after graduation. This program will be
implemented in FY 2005.
Analyst Advisory Group has also been created specifically
to address analytical concerns. I established and chair
the advisory group – composed of Headquarters and
field analysts. The group affords analysts the opportunity
to provide a working-level view of analytic issues and
to participate in policy and procedure formation. They
are involved in developing promotional criteria, providing
input for training initiatives, and establishing the
mentoring program for new FBI analysts.
Career Mentoring Working Group of the Analyst Advisory
Group is creating a career mentoring program to provide
guidance and advice to new analysts. Once implemented,
all new Intelligence Analysts will have a mentor to assist
them. The career mentor will have scheduled contact with
the new analyst on a monthly basis throughout the analyst’s
first year of employment.
of this year, the Director’s Awards will feature
a new category: the Director’s Award for Excellence
in Intelligence Analysis. Nominees for this award must
display a unique ability to apply skills in intelligence
analysis in furtherance of the FBI's mission, resulting
in significant improvements or innovations in methods
of analysis that contribute to many investigations or
activities, and/or overcoming serious obstacles through
exceptional perseverance or dedication leading to an
extraordinary contribution to a significant case, program,
threat, or issue.
to intelligence training for our agents, we are now working
to incorporate elements of our basic intelligence training
course into the New Agents Class curriculum. We expect
that work to be completed by September. A key element
of this concept is that agents in New Agents Training
and analysts in the College of Analytic Studies will
conduct joint training exercises in intelligence tradecraft.
The first offerings to contain these joint exercises
are expected in December of this year. In addition to
this, we are in the process of changing the criteria
on which agents are evaluated to place more emphasis
on intelligence-related functions and information sharing.
On March 22, 2004, Director Mueller also adopted a proposal
to establish a career path in which new Special Agents
are initially assigned to a small field office and exposed
to a wide range of field experiences. After approximately
three years, agents will be transferred to a large field
office where they will specialize in one of four program
areas: Intelligence, Counterterrorism/ Counterintelligence,
Cyber, or Criminal, and will receive advanced training
tailored to their area of specialization. In our Special
Agent hiring, we have changed the list of “critical
skills” we are seeking in candidates to include
intelligence experience and expertise, foreign languages,
on the training initiatives described above, the FBI
is also developing Intelligence Officer Certification
criteria for FBI professionals. Director Mueller has
approved a proposal to establish a formal Intelligence
Officer Certification that can be earned through a combination
of intelligence assignments and training. Once established,
this certification will be a prerequisite for promotion
to the level of Section Chief or Assistant Special Agent
in Charge (ASAC), thus ensuring that all members of the
FBI’s highest management levels will be staffed
by fully trained and experienced intelligence officers.
A single Intelligence Officer designation will identify
intelligence professionals at the FBI—agents, intelligence
analysts, linguists, surveillance experts, etc. We are
basing these criteria on the Intelligence Community’s
Intelligence Community Officer Program. We expect to
complete the criteria and begin implementation by October
of this year.
language specialists are critical to our intelligence
cadre as well. The FBI’s approximately 1,200 language
specialists are stationed across 52 field offices and
headquarters, and are now connected via secure networks
that allow language specialists in one FBI office to
work on projects for any other office. Since the beginning
of FY 2001, the FBI has recruited and processed more
than 30,000 linguist applicants. These efforts have resulted
in the addition of nearly 700 new linguists with a Top
Secret security clearance. In addition, the FBI formed
a Language Services Translation Center to act as a command
and control center to coordinate translator assignments
and maximize its capacity to render immediate translation
approach to CT is to be intelligence driven. We need
to both react to what we know and understand what we
don’t know, but must know to prevent a terrorist
begin with requirements. Requirements are statements
of what information is required by those who must act
to defend the nation. We have issued our first ever FBI
collection tasking for international threats, including
international terrorism. We have based those requirements
on the National Intelligence Priorities Framework and
in cooperation with the IC have issued an unclassified
version for our partners in state and local law enforcement.
then inventoried our collection capability. We have created
an on-line inventory of all our collection sources. This
tells us what we could know about all threats.
then compare requirements to our capabilities and identify
gaps in our ability to produce information described
in our requirements.
targeting analysts at headquarters and the field then
analyze how we could fill those gaps by developing new
sources. Source development tasks are given to each field
intelligence group to execute.
then produce information – both raw intelligence
reports and finished assessments in response to requirements.
Each intelligence report requests customer feedback.
Based on what we learn, we adjust collection and production.
conduct daily production boards to ensure cross-program
analysis of CT threats. Many of our CT cases begin as
criminal cases. Increasingly, terrorists will use indigenous
criminal enterprises to raise money and get equipment
to carry out operations. Our criminal intelligence base
is key to understanding the totality of the threat.
dedicated strategic analysis unit is devoted to “connecting
the dots.” These analysts, rather than aggregating
what has already been reported, posit hypotheses regarding
CT threats, and then compile evidence to prove or disprove
these hypotheses. This is a nascent capability at the
FBI and is an attempt to move analysts from current reporting
into strategic analysis. Our aim is to make our analysts
actively inquire of data rather than have them be passive
recipients of data which must both be reported and analyzed.
FBI shares intelligence with other members of the Intelligence
Community, to include the intelligence components of
the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), through direct
classified and unclassified dissemination and through
websites on classified Intelligence Community networks.
The FBI also shares intelligence with representatives
of other elements of the Intelligence Community who participate
in Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs) in the United
States or with whom the FBI collaborates in activities
abroad. FBI intelligence products shared with the Intelligence
Community include both raw and finished intelligence
reports. FBI intelligence products shared with the Intelligence
Community include Intelligence Information Reports (IIRs),
Intelligence Assessments, and Intelligence Bulletins.
To support information sharing, there is now a Special
Agent or Intelligence Analyst in the JTTFs dedicated
to producing “raw” intelligence reports for
the entire national security community, including state,
municipal, and tribal law enforcement partners and other
JTTF members. These reports officers are trained to produce
intelligence reports that both protect sources and methods
and maximize the amount of information that can be shared.
It is the responsibility of the Field Intelligence Groups
(FIGs) to manage, execute and maintain the FBI's intelligence
functions within the FBI field office. FIG personnel
have access to TS and SCI information so they will be
able to receive, analyze, review, and recommend sharing
this information with entities within the FBI as well
as our customers and partners within the Intelligence
and law enforcement communities.
have made great progress, but we have much work to do.
As the President indicated earlier this week, the FBI
will continue to create a specialized work force for
collecting and analyzing domestic intelligence on terrorism.
We also look forward to continuing our cooperation and
coordination with other intelligence agencies. The President
has announced that a National Counter-Terrorism Center
will be established to coordinate and monitor the counterterrorism
plans and activities of all government agencies and departments.
This Center will ensure that the federal government’s
efforts to combat terrorism are unified in priority and
purpose. He has also asked Congress to create the position
of the National Intelligence Director to serve as his
principal intelligence advisor and to oversee and coordinate
the foreign and domestic activities of the intelligence
community. We believe that both of these reforms will
help to create an integrated and unified national intelligence
effort. Thank you for allowing me the opportunity to
testify before you today and I will be happy to entertain
any questions you may have.