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Member Biographical Information

Member Biographical Information


House Members Who Became President
or Presidential Candidates*

Since 1789, 19 Presidents and 33 major presidential nominees served in the U.S. House of Representatives at some point in their career. This chart identifies these individuals, listing their dates of House service and party affiliation while in the House; and it includes the other major offices they held. In this chart, successful candidates for President are identified in bold.1 Only in the case of John Quincy Adams (1824) did a President become a Representative after White House service.

Only Henry Clay (1824), James A. Garfield (1880), and John Anderson (1980) ran for President in the general election as sitting House Members. In Garfield’s case, the only successful instance of a sitting Representative becoming President, he had already been elected by the Ohio legislature to the U.S. Senate. Anderson ran as an independent challenger, and Clay’s candidacy predated the rise of the modern two-party system.

John Quincy Adams

Oil on Canvas, Edwin Ahlstrom (after Jean-Baptiste-Adolphe Gibert), 2002, Collection of U.S. House of Representatives


Sixth President of the United States, John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives in 1831. He served nine terms in the House until his passing at the age of 81.

Election Individual (House Service) Other Service
2004 --- ---
2000 Albert Gore, Jr., Democrat of Tennessee (1977-1985) Vice President of the United States (1993-2001)
Senator from Tennessee (1985-1993)
1996 Robert J. “Bob” Dole, Republican of Kansas (1961-1969) Senator from Kansas (1969-1996)
Country attorney, Russell County, Kansas (1953-1961)
Kansas House of Representatives (1951-1953)
1992 George H.W. Bush, Republican of Texas (1967-1971) President of the United States (1989-1993)
Vice President of the United States (1981-1989)
Director, Central Intelligence (1976-1977)
Chief liaison officer to the People’s Republic of China (1974-1976)
Ambassador to the United Nations (1971-1973)
1988 George H.W. Bush, Republican of Texas (1967-1971) President of the United States (1989-1993)
Vice President of the United States (1981-1989)
Director, Central Intelligence (1976-1977)
Chief liaison officer to the People’s Republic of China (1974-1976)
Ambassador to the United Nations (1971-1973)
1984 --- ---
1980 John Anderson, Republican of Illinois (1961-1981) Independent candidate for president, 1980
1976 Gerald R. Ford, Republican of Michigan (1949-1973) President of the United States (1974-1977)
Vice President of the United States (1973-1974)
1972 Richard M. Nixon, Republican of California (1947-1951) President of the United States (1969-1974)
Vice President of the United States (1953-1961)
Senator from California (1951-1953)
1972 George McGovern, Democrat of South Dakota (1957-1961) Senator from South Dakota (1963-1981)
1968 Richard M. Nixon, Republican of California (1947-1951) President of the United States (1969-1974)
Vice President of the United States (1953-1961)
Senator from California (1951-1953)
1964 Lyndon B. Johnson, Democrat of Texas (1937-1949) President of the United States (1963-1969)
Vice President of the United States (1961-1963)
Senator from Texas (1949-1961)
National Youth Administration, Texas (1935-1937)
1960 John F. Kennedy, Democrat of Massachusetts (1947-1953) President of the United States (1961-1963)
Senator from Massachusetts (1953-1960)
1960 Richard M. Nixon, Republican of California (1947-1951) President of the United States (1969-1974)
Vice President of the United States (1953-1961)
Senator from California (1951-1953)
1956 --- ---
1952 --- ---
1948 --- ---
1944 --- ---
1940 --- ---
1936 --- ---
1932 --- ---
1928 --- ---
1924 John W. Davis, Democrat of West Virginia (1911-1913) Solicitor General of the United States (1913-1918)
Ambassador to the Court of St. James (1918-1921)
1924 Robert M. La Follette, Republican of Wisconsin (1885-1891) Progressive candidate for president, 1924
Senator from Wisconsin (1906-1925)
Governor of Wisconsin (1901-1906)
District attorney, Dane County, Wisconsin (1880-1884)
1920 James M. Cox, Democrat of Ohio (1909-1913) Governor of Ohio (1913-1915, 1917-1921)
1916 --- ---
1912 --- ---
1908 William Jennings Bryan, Democrat of Nebraska (1891-1895) Secretary of State (1913-1915)
1904 --- ---
1900 William McKinley, Republican of Ohio (1877-1883, 1885-1891) President of the United States (1897-1901)
Governor of Ohio (1891-1896)
1900 William Jennings Bryan, Democrat of Nebraska (1891-1895) Secretary of State (1913-1915)
1896 William McKinley, Republican of Ohio (1877-1883, 1885-1891) President of the United States (1897-1901)
Governor of Ohio (1891-1896)
1896 William Jennings Bryan, Democrat of Nebraska (1891-1895) Secretary of State (1913-1915)
1892 James B. Weaver, Greenbacker of Iowa (1879-1881, 1885-1889) Mayor of Colfax, Iowa (1901-1903)
Populist candidate for president, 1892
National Greenback candidate for president, 1880
1888 --- ---
1884 James G. Blaine, Republican of Maine (1863-1876), Speaker of the House (1869-1875) Secretary of State (1881, 1889-1892)
Senator from Maine (1876-1881)
Maine house of representatives (1859-1862)
1880 James A. Garfield, Republican of Ohio (1863-1880) President of the United States (1881)
Senator-elect from Ohio (1880)
1876 Rutherford B. Hayes, Republican of Ohio (1866-1867) Governor of Ohio (1868-1872, 1876-1877)
1872 Horace Greeley, Whig of New York (1848-1849) Democratic and Liberal Republican candidate for president, 1872
1868 --- ---
1864 Abraham Lincoln, Whig of Illinois (1847-1849) President of the United States (1861-1865)
Illinois house of representatives (1834-1842)
  Andrew Johnson, Democrat of Tennessee (1843-1853)2 President of the United States (1865-1868)
Vice President of the United States (1865)
Senator from Tennessee (1857-1862; 1875)
1860 Abraham Lincoln, Whig of Illinois (1847-1849) President of the United States (1861-1865)
Illinois house of representatives (1834-1842)
1860 Stephen A. Douglas, Democrat of Illinois (1843-1847) Senator from Illinois (1847-1861)
Illinois house of representatives (1836-1837)
1860 John C. Breckinridge, Democrat of Kentucky (1851-1855) Confederate Secretary of War (1865)
General, Confederate Army (1861-1865)
Senator from Kentucky (1861)
Vice President of the United States (1857-1861)
Kentucky house of representatives (1849)
1860 John Bell, Whig of Tennessee (1827-1841), Speaker of the House (1833-1835) Senator from Tennessee (1847-1859)
Tennessee house of representatives (1847)
Secretary of War (1841)
Tennessee senate (1817)
1856 James Buchanan, Democrat of Pennsylvania (1821-1831) President of the United States (1857-1861)
Minister to Great Britain (1853-1856)
Secretary of State (1845-1849)
Senator from Pennsylvania (1834-1845)
Minister to Russia (1832-1834)
Pennsylvania house of representatives (1814-1815)
1856 Millard Fillmore, Whig of New York (1833-1835, 1837-1843) American candidate for president, 1856
President of the United States (1850-1853)
Vice President of the United States (1849-1850)
New York state comptroller (1847-1849)
New York state assembly (1829-1831)
1852 Franklin Pierce, Democrat of New Hampshire (1833-1837) Senator from New Hampshire (1837-1842)
New Hampshire state general court (1829-1833)
1848 --- ---
1844 James K. Polk, Democrat of Tennessee (1825-1839), Speaker of the House (1835-1839) President of the United States (1845-1849)
Governor of Tennessee (1839-1841)
Tennessee house of representatives (1823-1825)
1844 Henry Clay, Jeffersonian Republican of Kentucky (1811-1814, 1815-1821, 1823-1825), Speaker of the House (1811-1814, 1815-1821, 1823-1825) Secretary of State (1825-1829)
Senator from Kentucky (1806-1807, 1810-1811, 1831-1842, 1849-1852)
Kentucky house of representatives (1803, 1808-1809)
1840 William Henry Harrison, Jeffersonian Republican of Ohio (1816-1819) President of the United States (1841)
Minister to Columbia (1828-1829)
Senator from Ohio(1825-1828)
Ohio state senate (1819-1821)
General, U.S. Army (1812-1814)
Governor of Indiana Territory (1801-1813)
Delegate, Northwest Territory (1799-1800)
  John Tyler, Jeffersonian Republican of Virginia (1816-1821)3 President of the United States (1841-1845)
Vice President of the United States (1841)
Senator from Virginia (1827-1836)
Virginia house of delegates (1811-1816; 1823-1825; 1839)
Governor of Virginia (1825-1827)
1836 William Henry Harrison, Jeffersonian Republican of Ohio (1816-1819) President of the United States (1841)
Minister to Columbia (1828-1829)
Senator from Ohio(1825-1828)
Ohio state senate (1819-1821)
General, U.S. Army (1812-1814)
Governor of Indiana Territory (1801-1813)
Delegate, Northwest Territory (1799-1800)
1836 Daniel Webster, Federalist of New Hampshire (1813-1817), Federalist/Administration of Massachusetts (1823-1827) Secretary of State (1841-1843, 1850-1852)
Senator from Massachusetts (1827-1841, 1845-1850)
1832 Andrew Jackson, Jeffersonian Republican of Tennessee (1796-1797) President of the United States (1829-1837)
Governor, Florida Territory (1821)
General, U.S. Army (1814-1821)
Tennessee supreme court (1798-1804)
Senator from Tennessee (1797-1798, 1823-1825)
1832 Henry Clay, Jeffersonian Republican of Kentucky (1811-1814, 1815-1821, 1823-1825), Speaker of the House (1811-1814, 1815-1821, 1823-1825) Secretary of State (1825-1829)
Senator from Kentucky (1806-1807, 1810-1811, 1831-1842, 1849-1852)
Kentucky house of representatives (1803, 1808-1809)
1828 Andrew Jackson, Jeffersonian Republican of Tennessee (1796-1797) President of the United States (1829-1837)
Governor, Florida Territory (1821)
General, U.S. Army (1814-1821)
Tennessee supreme court (1798-1804)
Senator from Tennessee (1797-1798, 1823-1825)
1828 John Quincy Adams, Whig of Massachusetts (1831-1848) President of the United States (1825-1829)
Secretary of State (1817-1825)
Minister to Great Britain (1815-1817)
Minister to Russia (1809-1814)
Senator from Massachusetts (1803-1808)
Massachusetts state senate (1802-1803)
Minister to Prussia (1797-1801)
Minister to Portugal (1796-1797)
Minister to the Netherlands (1794-1796)
1824 John Quincy Adams, Whig of Massachusetts (1831-1848) President of the United States (1825-1829)
Secretary of State (1817-1825)
Minister to Great Britain (1815-1817)
Minister to Russia (1809-1814)
Senator from Massachusetts (1803-1808)
Massachusetts state senate (1802-1803)
Minister to Prussia (1797-1801)
Minister to Portugal (1796-1797)
Minister to the Netherlands (1794-1796)
1824 Andrew Jackson, Jeffersonian Republican of Tennessee (1796-1797) President of the United States (1829-1837)
Governor, Florida Territory (1821)
General, U.S. Army (1814-
Tennessee supreme court (1798-1804)
Senator from Tennessee (1797-1798, 1823-1825)
1824 Henry Clay, Jeffersonian Republican of Kentucky (1811-1814, 1815-1821, 1823-1825), Speaker of the House (1811-1814, 1815-1821, 1823-1825) Secretary of State (1825-1829)
Senator from Kentucky (1806-1807, 1810-1811, 1831-1842, 1849-1852)
Kentucky house of representatives (1803, 1808-1809)
1820 --- ---
1816 --- ---
1812 James Madison, Jeffersonian Republican of Virginia (1789-1797) President of the United States (1809-1817)
Secretary of State (1801-1809)
Virginia ratification convention (1788)
Federal Convention (1787)
Continental Congress (1780-1783, 1787-1788)
Virginia executive council (1778)
Virginia general assembly (1776, 1799)
1808 James Madison, Jeffersonian Republican of Virginia (1789-1797) President of the United States (1809-1817)
Secretary of State (1801-1809)
Virginia ratification convention (1788)
Federal Convention (1787)
Continental Congress (1780-1783, 1787-1788)
Virginia executive council (1778)
Virginia general assembly (1776, 1799)
1804 --- ---
1800 --- ---
1796 --- ---
1792 --- ---
1788 --- ---

* Note: Presidential campaigns where no former House Member ran or won are left blank.
1 With the exception of Andrew Johnson and John Tyler, who became President through presidential succession, only successful candidates in individual elections are in bold.
2 Succeeded Abraham Lincoln after his assassination on April 14, 1865.
3 Succeeded William Henry Harrison after his death on April 4, 1841.


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